Data Analysis, Presentation and Interpretation of Data
Geography has a clear identity of a field discipline; thus, emphasis will be on various methods that can be applied during fieldwork. The course concentrates on two foci: Acknowledging that data are not merely collected but, rather, produced by various kinds of interactions between researcher and informant, the first focus is on methods applied during fieldwork with special emphasis on drawing a qualitative sample, and to `elicit¿ information by the use of photos. The second focus is related to the interpretation of data, discussing discourse analysis, how to include scale in analysis, and the challenge of generalizing on basis of qualitative case studies.
Grolemund, G. and Wickham, H. (2014), A Cognitive Interpretation of Data Analysis. International Statistical Review, 82: 184–204. doi: 10.1111/insr.12028
Larminie, James and (2009). Data acquisition systems: issues of use and interpretation of data. SAE International Paper 2009-01-1673, SAE International, Warrendale, PA. USA. The paper reflects a gross misinterpretation of the data, not what would be expected in a publication in a leading journal. In other words, the authors’ conclusions are not backed up by their data. A more appropriate headline based on this paper would be “Study supports a moderate protective effect of alcohol against all-cause mortality.” Given the wide media coverage of this article, with striking headlines indicating that moderate drinking does affect mortality, one Forum reviewer wondered “How can more than 30 years of research in this field be undone by one misguided paper in the BMJ? Once in a while I reflect on how some doctors and journalists interpret scientific papers; they seem to rely more on abstracts and press releases.”Note: Read the following caveat, privacy statement and interpretation of data; and then select the link at the bottom of this page to continue to access extract data files.Robert A. Warner, MD is board-certified in both Internal Medicine and Cardiology and is currently living and working near Portland, Oregon. He received his BS degree from Union College in 1964 and his MD degree from Upstate Medical Center in 1969. He completed a residency in internal medicine at Upstate in 1972 and a fellowship in cardiology at Duke University Medical Center in 1975. He was an Eliphalet Nott Scholar at Union College and is a member of the Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi and Alpha Omega Alpha honor societies. Dr. Warner was a member of the faculty of Upstate Medical Center College of Medicine from 1975 to 1998 where he rose to the rank of Full Professor of Medicine. From 1986 to 1996, he served as Chief of the Medical Service at the Syracuse VA Medical Center. From 1998 to 2002, Dr. Warner did medical research at the Duke University Clinical Research Institute in Durham, North Carolina and from 2002 to 2006 served as the Medical Director of Inovise Medical, Inc. in Portland, Oregon. Since then, he has remained active in research, continues to publish in medical and computer science journals and frequently presents his research findings at scientific meetings. Most of his current work consists of improving the accuracy of medical diagnoses and optimizing the interpretation of computer-generated data. The methods of interpretation that he has developed apply not only to biomedical data, but are also relevant to such diverse fields as engineering, the physical and social sciences, business and personal finance. Dr. Warner is the author of over 75 papers and 95 abstracts that have been published in peer-reviewed journals. He has served as consultant to many companies in the medical device and pharmaceutical industries and is the holder of four patents that are all related to the display and interpretation of biomedical data.Lindqvist appealed. During her appeal, she contended that posting information on an Internet web site does not amount to "processing personal data" within the meaning of the Data Protection Directive and that posting information on a web site does not amount to a transfer of data to a third country. She also contended that the Data Protection Directive does not apply to non-profit activities and that the sanctions she was facing for violating the data protection requirements violated her freedom of expression. On appeal, the Gota Court of Appeal of Sweden referred several questions to the ECJ, requesting that the European court clarify the correct interpretation of the Data Protection Directive.